What Is Explicit Bias? Definition & Examples

Negative behavior (such as overtly racist acts or prejudiced comments) can be a result of explicit bias. However, a teacher who openly praises students from a specific ethnic or socioeconomic group is also expressing explicit bias. In other words, even when our assumptions about a group are positive, we are still biased.

  • Now that we know what both words mean let’s see how to use them in a sentence.
  • Implicit memory is also sometimes referred to as nondeclarative memory since you are not able to consciously bring it into awareness.
  • The most explicit forms involve sexual harassment, unfair pay, and bias in the allocation of promotions and work assignments.
  • Lesions can occur naturally through trauma or disease, or they can be surgically induced by researchers.
  • In other words, it refers to something unstated, implied, or expressed indirectly.

Unlike explicit memory, implicit memory learns rapidly, even from a single stimulus, and it is influenced by other mental systems. The part of the brain most involved in creating implicit memories is the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia play a crucial role in procedural learning, habit formation, and motor memory. They help encode and store information related to skills, routines, and repetitive tasks that become automatic and unconscious over time.

Episodic memory consists of the storage and recollection of observational information attached to specific life-events. These can be memories that happened to the subject directly or just memories of events that happened around them. Episodic memory is what people generally think of when they talk about memory.

Responsible for processes such as habit formation and the regulation of emotions, the basal ganglia consist of a pair of structures deep inside the brain. The impact of implicit memory on our current behavior occurs without conscious retrieval of memories. However, their procedural memory appears small business bookkeeping tips to be largely unaffected. They can recall skills they have already learned (e.g., riding a bike) and acquire new skills (e.g., learning to drive). The discovery of implicit and explicit memory stemmed from the treatment of the neuroscience patient, Henry Gustav Molaison (Squire, 2009).

Implicit and Explicit Memory: Definition & Examples

Her TEDx talk,  “The Secret of Becoming Mentally Strong,” is one of the most viewed talks of all time. Psychology & Neuroscience Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for practitioners, researchers, and students in cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, and psychiatry. Bias is a systematic error in the design, administration, or analysis of a study. Because of bias, study results deviate from their true value and researchers draw erroneous conclusions. Environmental factors such as education, early life nutrition, and access to healthcare (rather than genetic factors) are often the cause of these differences. One such persisting idea is that differences on IQ tests have a racial component.

On the other hand, implicit attitudes are attitudes that are at the unconscious level, are involuntarily formed and are typically unknown to us. However, the concept of race is not grounded in genetics, but rather in sociology. Today, the scientific consensus is that genetics do not explain differences in IQ test performance between racial groups. Explicit bias refers to biased attitudes we are aware of, while implicit bias operates outside our awareness and control. Explicit bias is usually easier to identify, as it’s more obvious.

  • Conversely, implicit bias is more subtle and can be in direct contradiction to a person’s openly held beliefs.
  • Implicit often functions as the opposite, referring to something that is understood, but not described clearly or directly, and often using implication or assumption.
  • While damage to the hippocampus may explain the loss of explicit memory, the loss of their ability for conscious remembering seems to have still left intact various residual learning abilities.
  • Both the terms explicit and implicit are adjectives which we use commonly in English.

Implicit, on the other hand, denotes that something is understood although not clearly or directly expressed or conveyed—there is implication, assumption, or question. It often precedes a preposition, usually in and less frequently from, with, or within. Both words share the same Latin root, ‘plicare,’ meaning “to fold.” Explicit cost refers to the money incurred by the organization when factors of production, which include land, labor, and entrepreneurship, are concerned.

How Implicit and Explicit Memory Work Together

Explicit describes something as being expressed directly without anything being implied. Implicit describes things in which a meaning is implied or hinted at rather than being expressed directly. Explicit and implicit also have other specific meanings that are not necessarily opposites.

Related Brain Structures

From this example, we can see how implicit understandings are more subjective because they require individual interpretation. Biases tend to affect who gets hired, who gets promoted, who gets raises and who gets what kind of work, among other things. By knowing where bias is most likely to creep in, you can take steps to ensure that biases are considered when important decisions are made in those areas. The most explicit forms involve sexual harassment, unfair pay, and bias in the allocation of promotions and work assignments. Declarative memory supports a superposition associative memory, which allows for generalizations across representations. This ability to generalize could underlie some degree of productivity within the memory system.

For many everyday tasks, implicit memory and explicit memory work together so that you can perform tasks efficiently. This includes memories of events from your life as well as the memory of facts and other learned information. Many examples of explicit memory involve textbook learning or experiential memories. These are things that you consciously need to bring into awareness. When you’re trying to intentionally remember something (like a formula for your statistics class or a friend’s mailing address), this information is stored in your explicit memory. People use these memories every day, from remembering information for a test to recalling the date and time of a doctor’s appointment.

What is the difference between explicit and implicit?

While the retention and the recalling of events rely on the function of the hippocampus, the declarative inside the brain’s medial temporal lobe is consolidated into the temporal cortex (Squire, 2009). Skills using implicit memory do not involve conscious thought (i.e., they are unconscious and automatic). For example, we brush our teeth with little or no awareness of the skills involved. In addition to Molaison’s case, the study of patients suffering from various forms of neurodegeneration and trauma too, has developed our understanding of implicit and explicit memory (Squire, 2015).

Consciously recalling items on your to-do list involves the use of explicit memory. It is quite common to confuse explicit for implicit or vice versa. If you have not done that, you have surely wondered whether to use the former or latter.

How to remember explicit vs implicit?

Study the difference between imbed and embed and invoke and evoke. Then, check out why emigrate and immigrate are two separate words. Test how well you understand the difference between explicit and implicit with the following multiple-choice questions. Explicit biases are done intentionally, while implicit biases are done unintentionally, but it is only seen by people who are aware of these biases. It is necessary to take action against the biases that are taking place at your workplace and find out ways to eradicate the same in order to have smooth functioning at your workplace.

Protecting Implicit and Explicit Memory

Adding on to that, both words have multiple meanings—sometimes they’re opposites, and sometimes they simply mean different things. For example, we might have a semantic memory for knowing that Paris is the capital of France, and we might have an episodic memory for knowing that we caught the bus to college today. An attempt to cure his epilepsy via a bilateral medial temporal lobotomy destroyed parts of Molaison’s brain. Although following the surgery, Molaison was able to form short-term memories, his long-term memory was impaired.

Typically, you can remember these things without even having to think about them. In contrast, the adjective implicit describes something that has been implied—meaning it has been suggested or hinted at but not actually directly stated or expressed. For example, saying We had an implicit agreement means that the agreement was implied but never actually stated or written down.

Let’s look at some example sentences to understand how we use this adjective. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge that you have read and understand our privacy policy and code of conduct. Explicit attitudes are consciously accessible attitudes that are controllable and easy to report. Implicit attitudes are uncontrollable and perhaps not consciously accessible to us. Stack Exchange network consists of 183 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Thus, you see that the writer may not have clearly or directly laid out a moral vision but its characters, actions and experiences suggest it.

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